Nature and personal experiences are the sources of our inspiration to DRAW UP CONCEPTS AND CREATE DESIGNS. Ideas are transferred into sketches in order to achieve the desired form.

From a selected sketch, a MODEL WILL BE MADE FROM FOAM, WAX OR AN OIL-BASE CLAY. This process allows us to make certain that the shape and the harmonious integration between functionality and art are well presented in the piece. We pay special attention to the finishing of the model and overall physical appearances.

When the model is finished, A PLASTER CASE MOLD IS MADE for casting the piece into a prototype or we can refer to it as MASTER. The mold is divided, into at least 2 sections, to make it easier to take out the prototype when finished. When the plaster case mold has hardened, the model is removed.

The case mold is assembled together. A few holes are made so that the hard stone plaster can be poured into the mold CREATING THE MASTER. When it is hard enough, the mold is taken off. We will CHECK THE FORM AND DETAILS to see if there are any air pouches that need to be restored. The surface finishing of the master is doen by FINELY SANDING AND POLISHING BY HAND.

When the master is ready, we then MAKE A REUSABLE MOTHER MOLD OF FLEXIBLE SILICONE RUBBER which conforms exactly to the master.

A plaster or fiberglass case mold is made with at least one hole opened for wax pouring. Both the silicone and case molds are created in mated section connected by partable seams to allow for opening and closing of the mold.

The mold and case are then sent to the foundry when they are finished.

There, HOT WAX IS APPLIED ON THE INSIDE OF SILICONE MOLD AND ASSEMBLE THE MOLD FOR POURING HOT WAX INTO THE MOLD. While pouring, the mold is rocked so that the wax evenly covers the inside of the mold, the the excess wax is poured out. The thickness of the wax coat should be approximately 2-3 mm.

When the wax coat is done, the seams has to be cleaned and the artist will have to work closely with the foundry in ADDING, CHECKING, RESTORING DETAILS BEFORE SIGNING AND NUMBERING the wax for limited edition.

After that the foundry will make a ceramic shell for each of wax piece. When the shell is ready, the wax inside is melted and vaporized called "LOST WAX" TECHNIQUE WHICH IS AN ANCIENT TECHNIQUE. The empty ceramic mold is reheated before being filled with melted bronze. A group fo few workers is required to help in this melting bronze pouring process.

When the bronze has cooled down, THE SHELL WILL BE SMASHED to get the work inside, hence, each CERAMIC SHELL MOLD CAN ONLY BE USED ONCE.

WELDING, SANDING, RESTRUCTURING AND SMOOTHENING will be done to the bronze piece. We, will recheck the work for the foundry to refine and restore any missing or mismatched details of parts that may have been cast separately.

COLORING the bronze is the next step. HEAT AND CHEMICALS are used in this artistically difficult process and it is called "PATINATION". We have to work closely with patina artist to make sure the colors and textures will turn out the way it is intended.  Sometimes, we will do the patination ourselves.

Except for the creative process of master making and mother mold, THE ABOVE ENTIRE PROCESS IS REPEATED FOR EVERY SINGLE BRONZE PIECE CASTED IN LIMITED EDITION.

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